Before buying an apartment in Turkey, it is very important to check what is being sold to you, including from the legal side. The documentation issue should be treated carefully and responsibly. In this country, the main document when buying a home is the TAPU title, which is a certificate of ownership. However, there is another important document that should not be forgotten – this is the Turkish registration certificate of real estate, it is called ISKAN (Iskan). Let’s take a closer look at the nuances associated with this technical documentation.
ISKAN: an important document when buying real estate
Iskan is an act of acceptance of an object into operation or a technical passport for a new building in Turkey. He acts as a guarantor that the property is ready for use in agreement with the Turkish State Commission. The construction company usually provides a ready-made Iskan to the homeowner. If there is a sale of secondary real estate, then Iskan is obligatorily transferred to the new owner.
Types of technical data sheets for real estate in Turkey
More than 20 years ago, the presence of any of these documents was rarely checked by the authorities and buyers, so more than 70% of real estate objects did not have them. This situation suited both sellers and buyers, since both parties received significant savings, because the cadastral value of real estate without Iskan was much lower, and, accordingly, the amount of tax payable upon purchase was also quite modest.
Gradually, the state tightened many laws, requirements and procedures, and in 2014, developers were forced to secure the approval of the property for commissioning and receive only the document, which was named Iskan.
Along with this requirement, control was introduced. At the moment, without Iskan, the new building cannot be connected to the city water supply, power supply and gas network.
There are 2 types of permits: Genel Iskan (general – for a residential complex) and Ferdi Iskan (individual – for apartments). Both registration certificates are issued by the mayor’s office for the location of the property.
Genel Iskan (Genel Iskan) is a general registration certificate, a certificate confirming the commissioning of a building. Issued for the entire building as a whole (multi-apartment residential complex, villas).
Genel Iskan contains complete information about the land plot where the building is located, and the technical data of the building: the footage of all apartments, number of storeys, details of the installation of electrical wiring and sewerage systems.
The developer receives the general technical passport of the property in Turkey after the completion of construction work. This permitting documentation indicates that the new building was built in accordance with all state regulatory requirements, communications are connected and the house can be put into operation. The building is coordinated with the municipality and erected on site, taking into account the master plan of the city zoning in accordance with the typology of elements of the local environment, architectural and historical-cultural factors. According to the laws of the Republic of Turkey, the operation of a building without a general registration certificate is prohibited. If there is no relevant document, the building can simply be transferred to another developer or demolished.
To get Genel Iskan, the developer must submit documents to the city municipality, after which an expert commission is held. After verification, officials of the regulatory authorities must certify the act with a seal and signature.
For permission to commission a construction site in Turkey and obtain a general registration certificate for it, the expert commission checks:
compliance of the completed building structures with the requirements of design documentation;
connection of communication networks;
the availability of shelters and the suitability of the fire escape;
number of fire extinguishing and fire alarm sensors;
availability of access roads.
If the commission reveals flaws, the developer is obliged to eliminate them in time. If the check was successful and no comments were found, an opinion on compliance with all technical regulations is issued.
The lack of a technical passport indicates that the legal registration and construction are not completed. According to Turkish law, a building permit is valid for 5 years. During this period of time, the developer company must complete construction work and obtain a general registration certificate. If the construction company has not done so, the building permit will be canceled.
Ferdi Iskan (Ferdi Iskan) is an individual registration certificate for apartments within a residential building. Issued for each individual apartment or private house after the purchase of a property.
Ferdi Iskan contains the technical data and characteristics of an individual property: the total area of the apartment, including balconies, kitchen, corridor, bathrooms and outside walls, location and number of rooms, exact address and details of the owner.
An individual registration certificate is issued once and only when purchasing housing in a new building. The owner of the apartment can get it from the city administration, after he receives a certificate of ownership of real estate, that is, Tapu. If there is an Iskan, the owner can apply for registration of water and electricity, telephone and Internet in his own name. Be sure to pay attention to the fact that the living space cannot be used without water and electricity meters registered in the name of the new owner.
What happens if you buy a property without Iskan?
It is possible to buy real estate without a technical passport only in an object of construction in progress, it is very important at the time of the conclusion of the transaction to indicate in the contract that there is no act of commissioning the structure. You should also prescribe the approximate timeframe for obtaining technical documentation and the terms of liability of the construction company in case of violation of agreements.
With Ferdi Iskan, the annual tax on an apartment will be different from the tax on the same property, but without the registration certificate. Instead of 0.02% of the appraised value of housing, you will need to pay 1% of the land tax.
Another important point is that it is cheaper to connect a subscriber to electricity and water supply for an apartment with Iskan and the tariffs will be an order of magnitude lower.
It should be remembered that it is impossible to issue an individual Ferdi Iskan for housing without a general Genel Iskan for the building that the developer receives. If the building does not have a general registration certificate, then the state can order to demolish the ghost house or, for example, lay a highway there.
Iskan registration cost in Turkey
It takes about 7-10 days to make an individual Iskan. The cost of a technical passport for an apartment in Turkey depends on the living space and characteristics of the apartment. This sum is about TRY 1900. If the previous owner of the apartment received Ferdi Iskan, the new owner does not need to receive it again.